Agelenids of the World

Systematics and Taxonomy of Agelenidae, a Worldwide distributed Spider Family

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. Part ii

Publication Type:Book
Year of Publication:1864
Authors:J. Blackwall
Series Title:A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. Part ii.
Number of Pages:pp. 210
Keywords:Agelenidae, Agelenidae (Araneae)., Argyroneta, Argyroneta (Araneae)., Atypus, Atypus (Araneae)., Biology, Caelotes, Caelotes (Araneae)., Ciniflo, Ciniflo (Araneae)., Ciniflonidae, Ciniflonidae (Araneae)., Clubiona, Clubiona (Araneae)., Dolomedes, Dolomedes (Araneae)., Drassidae, Drassidae (Araneae)., Drassus, Drassus (Araneae)., Dysdera, Dysdera (Araneae)., Dysderidae, Dysderidae (Araneae)., Eresus, Eresus (Araneae)., Linyphia, Linyphia (Araneae)., Linyphia alacris - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia albula - (Cambr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia alticeps - (Sund) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia camelinus - Koch (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia cauta - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia circumspecta - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia claytonoe - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia crypticolens - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia domestica - Wider (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia ericoea - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia flavipes - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia frenata - (Wider) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia fuliginea - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia furva - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia gracilis - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia insignis - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia isabellina - Koch (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia longidens - (Wider) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia marginata - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia meadii - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia minuta - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia montana - (Clerck) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia nigella - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia obscura - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia pernix - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia pratensis - (Wider) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia pulchella - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia pulla - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia resupina - (Wider) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia rubea - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia socialis - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia tenella - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia tenuis - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia terricola - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia triangularis - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia vivax - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphiidae, Linyphiidae (Araneae)., Lycosa, Lycosa (Araneae)., Lycosidae, Lycosidae (Araneae)., Nops - (M'Leay) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Octonoculina, Octonoculina (Araneae)., Oonops, Oonops (Araneae)., Philodromus, Philodromus (Araneae)., Salticus, Salticus (Araneae)., Scytodidae, Scytodidae (Araneae)., Segestria, Segestria (Araneae)., Sparassus, Sparassus (Araneae)., Sphasus, Sphasus (Araneae)., Systematics, Tegenaria, Tegenaria (Araneae)., Tetragnatha, Tetragnatha (Araneae)., Textrix, Textrix (Araneae)., Theridiidae, Theridiidae (Araneae)., Theridion, Theridion (Araneae)., Theridion bicorne - Wider (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisidae, Thomisidae (Araneae)., Thomisus (Araneae)., Thomisus [Zoology / / ].

The second part of Blackwall's British Spiders, published by the Ray Society, completes the most important work on those animals which has appeared for some years. It forms a volume consisting of 384 large 4to pages, and is illustrated with 29 plates, representing the British species of spiders, of the natural size and magnified, with numerous figures of details of structure and of the webs and egg-cocoons of many of the species. The first part, published in 1861, contains an introduction of twelve pages, giving a short description of the anatomical structure of the Araneida, and indicating the terminology employed by the author, and also discussing some general matters in the life-history of the animals, such as the change of skin, the reproduction of lost limbs, the production of the web and formation of the egg-cocoons, and the power of ascending into the air possessed by many species. The work includes the results of Templeton's investigations upon the Irish spiders, the MS. of which has been for many years in the possession of the Ray Society; it contains descriptions of many new species and the synonymy of those previously described. The genera are carefully characterized, but the characters of the families are deficient in precision. The classification adopted will be discussed in a subsequent page. The primary division of the Araneida into tribes, adopted by Blackwall (History of Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland), is founded upon the number of eyes. The species with eight eyes constitute the tribe Octonoculina, which includes by far the. greater part of the order; the Senoculina include the species with six eyes; and the Binoculina those with only two. The last-mentioned tribe is formed solely by the genus Nopa (M'Leay), of which only a single species, is described; the Senoculina include the two families Dysderidae and Scytodidae of Blackwall. This character is evidently most artificial, and the mere suppression of a single pair of ocelli out of eight cannot be regarded as sufficient to warrant the establishment of a family, much less to serve for the primary division of an order. Blackwall, indeed, speaks of its "convenience;" but little can gained even in this respect when we find that, of 315 species described in the present work, 307 belong to one group and only 8 to the other, whilst the disadvantage of separating Dysdera and Segestria from the Drassidae, to which they are manifestly so closely allied, furnishes a strong argument against the adoption of this principle of classification. The arrangement of the families is as follows:- Tribe OCTONOCULINA. Fam. Mygalidae. (Atypus, 1 sp.) Fam. Lycosidae. (Lycosa, 16 sp.; Dolomedes, 3 sp.; Secaerge, 1 sp.; Sphasus, 1 sp.: total 21 sp.) Fam. Sallicidae. (Eresus, 1 sp.; Salticus, 17 sp.: total 18 sp.) Fam. Thomisidae. (Thomisus, 10 sp.; Philodromus, 9 sp.; Sparassus, 1 sp.: total 29 sp.) Fam. Drassidae. (Drassus, 14 sp.; Clubiona, 12 sp.; Argyroneta, 1 sp.: total 27 sp.) Fam. Ciniflonidae. Spinners 8; tarsi 3-clawed; posterior legs with a calamistrum or curling-apparatus of two parallel rows of short, moveable spines. (Ciniflo, 5 sp.; Ergatis, 8 sp.; Veleda, 1 sp.: total 9 sp.) Fam. Agelenidae. (Ayelena, 9 sp.; Tegenaria, 4 sp.; Caelotes, 1 sp.; Textrix, 1 sp.: total 15 sp.) Fam. Theridiidae, (Theridion, 27 sp.; Phelcus, 1 sp.: total 28 sp.) Fam. Linyphiidae. (Zinyphia, 33 sp.; Nerine, 48 sp.; Walckmaera, 33 sp.; Pachygnatha, 3 sp.: total 117 sp.) Fam. Epeiridae. (Epeira, 31 sp.; Tetragnatha, 1 sp.: total 32 sp.) Tribe SENOCULINA. Eam. Dysderidae. (Dysdera, 3 sp.; Segestria, 2 sp.; Schaenobates, 1 sp.; Oonops, 1 sp.: total 7 sp.) Fam. Scytodidae. (Scytodes, 1 sp.) The following known species are described and figured by Blackwall (History of British Spiders, part ii.):- Linyphia montana (Clerck), l. c. p. 211, pl. 15. fig. 138; L. triangularis (Walck.), l. c. p. 212, fig. 139; L. marginata (Blackw.) =resupina (Wider), l. c. p. 213, fig. 140; L. pratensis (Wider), l. c. p. 215, fig. 141; L. fuliginea (Blackw.), l. c. p. 216, fig. 142; L. rubea (Blackw.), l. c. p. 217, fig. 143; L. minuta(Blackw.)(=domestica,Wider), l. c. p. 218, fig. 144; L. cauta(Blackw.), l. c. p. 220, fig. 145; L. vivax (Blackw.), l. c. p. 221, pl. 10. fig. 146; L. socialis (Sund.), l. c. p. 222, fig. 147; L. crypticolens (Walck.), l. c. p. 224, fig. 148; L. alticeps (Sund), l. c. p. 226, fig. 149; L. longidens (Wider), l. c. p. 227, fig. 160; L. frenata (Wider), l. c. p. 228, fig. 151; L. tenuis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 230, fig. 152; L. terrieola (Koch), l. c. p. 231, fig. 153; L. meadii (Blackw.), l. c. p. 232, fig. 154; L. daytonia (Blackw.), l. c. p. 233, fig. 155; L. pulla (Blackw.), l. c. p. 234, fig. 166; L. alacris (Blackw.), l. c. p. 235, pl. 17. fig. 157; L. ericaea (Blackw.), l. c. p. 237, fig. 150; L. insignis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 238, fig. 160; L. pernix (Blackw.), l. c. p. 239; L. nigella (Blackw.), l. c. p. 240; L. albula (Cambr.), l. c. p. 241, fig. 161; L. pulchella (Blackw.), l. c. p. 242; L. furva (Blackw.), l. c. p. 243; L. obscura (Blackw.), l. c. p. 244, fig. 162; L. gracilis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 246, fig. 163; L. tenella (Blackw.), l. c. p. 246, fig. 164; L. circumspecta (Blackw.), ibid., fig. 165; L. flavipes (Blackw.), l. c. p. 247, fig. 166; Neriene marginata (Blackw.), l. c. p. 249, fig. 167; N. bicolor (Blackw.), l. c. p. 260, fig. 168; N. rufipes (Blackw.), l. c.. p. 251; N. livida (Blackw.), l. c.. p. 252, pl. 18. fig. 169; N. furva (Blackw.), l. c. p. 268; N. errant (Blackw.), ibid., fig. 170; N. sylvatica (Blackw.), l. c. p. 254; N. viaria (Blackw.), l. c. p. 255, fig. 171; N. pulla (Blackw.), l. c. p. 266; N. graecilis (Blackw.), ibid., fig. 172; N. vagans (Blackw.), l. c. p. 257, fig. 173; N. dentata (Wider), l. c. p. 268, fig. 174; N. affinis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 269, fig. 176; N. huthwaitii(Cambr.), l. c. p. 260, fig. 176; N. pygmaea (Blackw.), l. c.. p. 261, fig. 177; N. lugubris (Blackw.), ibid.; N. scuratilis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 202; N. avida (Blackw.), l. c. p. 263; N. timida (Blackw.), ibid.; N. flavipes (Blackw.), l. c. p. 264, fig. 178; N. parva (Blackw.), l. c. p. 266, fig. 179; N. munda. (Blackw.), ibid., fig. 180; N. tibialis (Blarkw.), l. c. p. 266; N. cornuta (Blackw.), l. c. p. 267, fig. 181; N. bituberculata (Wider), l. c. p. 268, fig. 182; N. apicata (Blackw.), l. c. p. 269, fig. 183; N. rubens (Blackw.), l. c. p. 270, fig. 184; N. nigra (Blackw.), l. c. p. 271, fig. 185; N. graminicola (Sund.), l. c. p. 272, pl. 19. fig. 186; N. cornigera (Blackw.), l. c. p. 273, fig. 187; N. montana (Blackw.), l. c. p. 278; N. lonyipalpis (Sund.), l. c. p. 274, fig. 188; N. fusca (Blackw.), l. c. p. 275, fig. 189; N. agretis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 276, fig. 190; N. vigilaL (Blackw.), l. c. p. 277, fig. 191; N. gibbosa (Blackw.), l. c. p. 278; N. tuberosa (Blackw.), l. c. p. 270, fig. 102; N. trilineata (Blackw.), ibid., fig. 193; N. rubella (Blackw.) (=isabellina, Koch), l. c. p. 281, fig. 194; N. variegata (Blackw.), l. c. p. 282, fig. 195; N. sulcata (Blackw.), l. c. p. 284; N. herbigrada (Blackw.), l. c. p. 285, fig. 199; N. alnormis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 286, fig. 200; N. rubripes (Blackw.), l. c. p. 287, fig. 201; N. dubia (Blackw.), l. c. p. 288, fig. 202; Walckenaera acuminate (Blackw.) (=camelinus, Koch), l. c.. p. 289, pl. 20. fig. 203; W. cuspidate (Blackw.), l. c. p. 290, fig. 204; W. monoceros (Wider), l. c. p. 291, fig 205; W. hardii (Blackw.), l. c. p. 292, fig. 206; W. unicornis (Cambr.), l. c. p. 293, fig. 207; W. obtusa (Blackw.), l. c. p. 294, fig. 208; W. fuscipes (Blackw.), l. c. p. 296, fig. 209; W. punctata (Blackw.), l. c.. p. 295, fig. 210; W. parallela (Wider), l. c. p. 296, fig. 211; W. obscura (Blackw.) l. c. p. 297, fig. 212; W. flavipes (Blackw.), l. c. p. 298, fig. 213; W. turgida (Blackw.), l. c. p. 299, fig. 214; W. atra (Blackw.), l. c. p. 300, pl. 21. fig. 215; W. aggeris (Cambr.), l. c., p. 301, fig. 216; W. hiemalis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 302, fig. 217; W. bifrons (Blackw.), ibid., fig. 218; W. bicolor (Blackw.), l. c.. p. 303; W. parca (Blackw.), l. c. p. 804, fig. 219; W. exills (Blackw.), l. c. p. 305, fig. 220; W. depressa (Blackw.), l. c. p. 306, fig. 221; W. pratensis (Blackw.), ibid., fig. 222; W. humilis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 307, fig. 223; W. vafra (Blackw.), l. c. p. 308; W. cristata (Blackw.) (= Theridion bicorne,Wider), l. c. p. 309, fig. 224; W. antica(Wider), l. c. p. 310, fig. 225; W. savicola (Camb.), l. c.. p. 311, fig. 226; W. pumila (Blackw.), l. c. p. 312, fig. 227; W. picina(Blackw.), l. c. p. 313, fig. 328; W. fastigata(Blackw.) (Ther. acuminatum, Wider), l. c. p. 314, pl. 22. fig. 229; W. nemoralis (Blackw.), l. c. p. 315, fig. 230; W. ludicra (Cambr.), l. c. p. 316, fig. 231; W. frantata (Blackw.), l. c.. p. 317, fig. 232; Pachygnatha clerckii (Sund.), l. c. p. 318, fig. 233; P. listeri (Sund.), l. c. p. 320, fig. 284; P. degeerii (Sund.), l. c. p. 321, fig. 235.

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