Agelenids of the World

Systematics and Taxonomy of Agelenidae, a Worldwide distributed Spider Family

On European Spiders. Part I. Review of the European Genera of Spiders, preceded by some observations on Zoological Nomenclature

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1869
Authors:T. Thorell
Journal:Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. ser. 3
Pagination:pp. 1-242
Date Published:1869
Keywords:(Blackw.) = Ox. littoralis (Sim.) as its type, (C. Koch), (Cambr.)]., (Cl.), (Cl.) the type of Ctenus is Ctenus dubius (Walck.) Peucetia substitued, (Cl.)]., (De G.), (Keys. nec, (Koch), (Koch), (See Table, p. 148.) Type, Attus formicaeformis, (Luc.)]., (Linn.)]., (Luc.)]., (Luc), (Panz.)]., (Rossi), (see p. 156)]., (See Table, p. 149.) Type, A. sanguinolenta, (Linn.)]., (See Table, p. 151.) Type, A. margaritatus, (Cl.)]., (Sund.), (Walck.), (Walck.)]., (Westr.), = Aulonia alacris, = Aulonia silvicola, = Stalita taenaria, 13-guttata, 151.) Type, Xysticus depressus, (Koch)]., 4-guttatum, (Hahn), = Amaurobius kochii, (Auss.), =?, Ther. obscurum,, A. cellulanus - (Cl.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., A. corollota, acuminatum, Aelurops (Araneae): [Gen nov, Agalenoidae, Agalenoidae (Araneae)., Agelena, Agelena (Araneae)., Agelena celans, Agelena celans (Araneae)., Agelenidae, Agelenidae (Araneae)., Agelenidae gracilipes - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Agelenidae spinimana - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Agroeca, Agroeca - (Westr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Amaurobiinae, Amaurobiinae (Araneae)., Amaurobius, Amaurobius - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Amaurobius kochii - (Auss.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., and Oxyopes has O., Anyphaena, Anyphaena (Araneae)., Apostenus, Apostenus - (Westr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Apostenus saxatilis - (Auss.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Araneae, Araneae (Arachnida)., Arctosa, Arctosa (Araneae)., Argenna (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Argenna mengei (Araneae): [Sp nov, Type, sp. n., p. 123, Upsal]., Argyrodes, Argyrodes - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Argyrodes 13-guttata - (Rossi) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Argyrodes castaneus - (Cl.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Argyrodes epeiroe - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Argyrodes sisyphium, Argyrodes sisyphium - (Cl.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Argyrodes triangularis - (Cl.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Argyrodes tuberculata - (De G.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Argyroneta - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Artanes (Araneae): [Gen nov, as its, Asagena, Asagena - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Atea melanogaster, Atea melanogaster - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Attoidae, Attoidae (Araneae)., Attus, Attus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Attus cupreus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Attus formicaeformis - (Luc.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Attus frontalis - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Attus heterophthalmus - (Reuss) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Attus lucasii - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Attus piceus - (Sulzer) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Atypus, Atypus - (Latr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Aulonia (Araneae)., Aulonia [Zoology / / The type of, Aulonia alacris - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Aulonia ruricola, Aulonia ruricola - (De G.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Aulonia silvicola - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Avicularia, Avicularia - (Lam.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ballus, Ballus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Biology, Caelotes - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., castaneus, Cercidia (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Chiracanthium, Chiracanthium - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ciniflo, Ciniflo - Blackw. (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ciniflo humilis - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Citigradae, Citigradae (Araneae)., Clubiona - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Clubiona domestica - (Reuss) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Coelotes, Coelotes (Araneae)., Coriarachne (Araneae): [Gen nov, Cryphoeca (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Cteniza, Cteniza (Araneae)., Ctenus, Ctenus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ctenus dubius - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Cyclosa, Cyclosa (Araneae)., Cyrtarachne - (Thor.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Cyrtauchenius (Araneae): [Gen nov, Cyrtocephalus, Luc.) (See Table, p. 145.) Type, C. walckenaerii,, Cyrtophora, Cyrtophora - (Simon) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Deinopis, Deinopis (Araneae)., Dendryphantes, Dendryphantes - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Diaea (Araneae): [Gen nov, Dictyna, Dictyna - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Dipoena (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Dipoena [Zoology / / pp. 77 & 91, Dolomedes, Dolomedes - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Dolomedes spinimanus - (Duf.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassidae, Drassidae (Araneae)., Drassodes - (Westr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus, Drassus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus ater - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus fulgens - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus lucifugus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus praelongipes - (Cambr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus subniger - (Cambr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Dysdera, Dysdera - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Dysderoidae, Dysderoidae (Araneae)., Episinus, Episinus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Episinus truncatus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Eresus, Eresus (Araneae)., Eresus calophylla - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Eresus fasciata - (Oliv.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Eresus faustum - (Hentz) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Eresus reticulata - (Linn.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Erigone, Erigone (Araneae)., Ero - (C. Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ero [Zoology / / Argyrodes tuberculata, Ero amaranthina - (Luc.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ero germanica - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ero groeca - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ero italica - (Canestr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ero nitida - (Sav. & Aud.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ero occitanica - (Dog.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Ero saxatilis (Koch), Ero saxatilis (Koch) (Araneae)., Eucharia, Euophrys, Euophrys - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Euryopis, Euryopis (Araneae)., Filistata, Filistata (Araneae)., Filistatoidae, Filistatoidae (Araneae)., for its type, for Pasithea (the latter name being preoccupied) has P. viridis, Gen nov, g. n., p. 133, Type, Agelena, Gen nov, g. n., p. 165, (=, Gen nov, g. n., p. 180, (= Artamus, Koch), Gen nov, g. n., p. 184, (See Table, p. 151.), Gen nov, g. n., p. 186, (See Table, p., Gen nov, g. n., p. 209, = Salticus,, Gen nov, g. n., p. 217, = Philia, (Koch),, Gen nov, g. n., p. 219, (= Dia, and,, Gnaphosa, Gnaphosa - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Hadites - (Keys.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., has, Heliophanus, Heliophanus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Hersilia - (Sav. & Aud.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Hersilia oraniensis - (Luc.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Hersilia oraniensis [Zoology / / is made the type of a new genus by, Hersilioidae, Hersilioidae (Araneae)., Hersiliola, Hersiliola (Araneae)., Heteropoda, Heteropoda - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Histopona (Araneae): [Gen nov, Hyptiotes, Hyptiotes - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Idiops - (Perty) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Laterigradae, Laterigradae (Araneae)., Lathrodectus, latter genus also includes, Leptorchestes (Araneae): [Gen nov, Linyphia, Linyphia - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia argyrodes - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Linyphia longidens - (Reuss) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Liocranum, Liocranum - (L. Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Liphistius - Schiodte (Araneae): [Systematics]., Lithyphantes (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Lithyphantes [Zoology / / pp. 77 & 91, Loxosceles, Loxosceles - (Lowe) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Loxosceles citigrada - (Hein. & Lowe) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Lycosa, Lycosa - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Lycosa albimana, Lycosa albimana - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Lycosa apuliae, Lycosa apuliae - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Lycosa lugubris, Lycosa lugubris - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Lycosoidae, Lycosoidae (Araneae)., Marpessa, Marpessa - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Menemerus, Menemerus - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Menemerus falsificus - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., merianoe, Meta, Meta - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Meta merianoe (Araneae)., Meta muraria - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Micrommata, Micrommata - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Micrommata horrida - (Fab.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Micryphantes flavo-maculatus, Micryphantes flavo-maculatus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Misumena, Misumena - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Monaeses (Araneae): [Gen nov, g. n., p. 182, (= Monastes, Luc.) (See, Monases (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Monastes - Luc. (Araneae): [Systematics]., Nemesia, Nemesia - (Say. & Aud.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Nemesia cellicola - (Sav. & Aud.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Nephila, Nephila (Araneae)., Neriene - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Nesticus, Nesticus (Araneae): [Gen nov]., New taxa, Nomenclature, Ocyale, Ocyale (Araneae)., Ocyale (Sav. Aud.), Ocyale (Sav. Aud.) (Araneae)., OEcobiidae - Blackw. (Araneae): [Systematics]., OEcobius - (Luc.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Olios leucosios - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Oonops, Oonops - (Temp.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Oonops pulcher - (Temp.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Opiliones, Opiliones (Arachnida)., Oxyopes, Oxyopes - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Oxyopes by probably belongs to the Mygalidae]., Oxyptila - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Pachygnatha, Pachygnatha (Araneae)., Palpimanus, Palpimanus (Araneae)., Palpimanus P. gibbulus - (Duf.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Parthenia, Koch) (See Table, p. 149.) Type, AElurops v-insignitus,, Peucetia, Peucetia (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Ph. phaleratum, Philaeus (Araneae): [Gen nov, Philodromus, Philodromus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Pholcomma (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Pholcomma [Zoology / / pp. 77 & 98, Pholcus, Pholcus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Phrurolithus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Phrurolithus Phrurolithus festivus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Phyllonethis, Phyllonethis (Araneae): [Gen nov]., piochardi, (Sim.), and, Xysticus cuneolus, (Koch)]., Pirata, Pirata - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., piraticus (Cl.) and includes P. uliginosus (Thor.) Dolomedes typically, Pythonissa - Koch (Araneae): [Systematics]., represented by A. fimbriatus (Cl.) the type of Ocyale is A. mirabilis, rest of Koch's genus Arctosa Pirata (= Potamia Ohl ) has for its type A., Retitelariae, Retitelariae (Araneae)., Salticidae, Salticidae (Araneae)., Salticus, Salticus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Salticus - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Salticus brevipes - (Hahn) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Salticus obscurus - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Salticus pulchellus - (Hahn) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Schiodte)]., Scytodoidae, Scytodoidae (Araneae)., Segestria, Segestria - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Selenops, Selenops - (Duf.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Singa - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Sparassus, Sparassus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Sparassus argelasii - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Spermophora, Spermophora - (Hentz) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Stalita, Stalita - (Schiodte) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Stalita schiaedtii (Araneae)., Stalita schiaedtii [Zoology / / p. 156, Stalita taenaria - (Keys. nec Schiodte) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Steatoda, Steatoda - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Systematics, Table, p. 151.) Type, M. paradoxus, (Luc.), Other species, Thom., Tapinopa, Tapinopa (Araneae)., Tapinopa (Westr.), Tapinopa (Westr.) (Araneae)., Tarentula, Tarentula - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Tegenaria, Tegenaria - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Tegenaria civilis - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Territelariae, Territelariae (Arachnida)., Tetragnatha, Tetragnatha - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Textrix, Textrix - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Textrix montana - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Th. congener, Thanatus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., the, Therid. loetum, Therid. projectum, Theridiidae, Theridiidae (Araneae)., Theridioidae, Theridioidae (Araneae)., Theridium, Theridium - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Theridium 4-guttatum - (Hahn) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Theridium acuminatum - (Luc). (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisus, Thomisus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisus abbreviatus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisus diadema - (Hahn) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisus lateralis - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisus scabriculus - (Westr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisus villosus - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Titanaeca (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Titanoeca (Araneae): [Gen nov, g. n., p. 124, Type, Theridium, torpida, (Koch), incl. also, Textrix montana, (Koch)]., Trachelas - (L. Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Trechona, Trechona - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., tricuspidata, (Fab.), = Thom. diana, (Walck.)]., Trochosa, Trochosa - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Tubitelariae, Tubitelariae (Araneae)., type, type includes T. intricaria Koch also Lyc. leopardus (Sund.) and the, Type, A. dorsata, (Fab.), Other species, A. globosa, (Fab.), and, A., Uloborus, Uloborus - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Uloborus latreillii, Uloborus latreillii (Araneae)., Uloborus walckenaerii - (Lat.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Uroctea - (Duf.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., variegatus (Lat.) The Brazilian genus Idiops (Perty) combined with, Walckenaera, Walckenaera - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Walckenaera acuminata - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Xysticus, Xysticus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Xysticus audax - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Xysticus cuneolus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Xysticus depressus - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Xysticus kochii (Araneae): [Sp nov]., Xysticus viaticus - (Koch nec Linn.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Yllenus, Yllenus - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Yllenus arenarius - (Sim.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Zilla, Zilla - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Zodarium, Zodarium - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Zora, Zora - (Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Zora lycaena - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Zosis (Araneae)., Zosis [Zoology / / ].

This is undoubtedly the most valuable contribution to the knowledge of the Araneida that has appeared of late years. The author discusses in it the general classification of the group, and the bibliography and literature of the subject generally; and many remarks upon extra-European forms of Spiders will be found scattered through it, or in the notes appended to the text. The author has also discussed the general question of zoological nomenclature and synonymy, his remarks upon which are exceedingly valuable. A great number of generic names are changed by the author on account of their having been preoccupied in other groups (see especially p. 37). Thorell also gives a notice of Fossil Spiders, including descriptions of some new forms. THORELL (European Spiders, part I.) combines Eresus with the Salticidae to form his suborder Saltigradae, which he divides into two families as follows (l. c. p. 198):-1. Eresoidae: cephalothorax antice valde elevato-convexus; oculi 2 postici inter se multo longius distantes quam sunt 2 proximo antecedents; tarsi unguibus trinis aut binis instructi, fasciculo unguiculari carentes. 2. Attoidae: cephalothorax deplanatus, parte cephalica non vel paullo tantum altiore quam parte thoracica; oculi 2 postici inter se non multo longius quam 2 antecedentes remoti; oculi 4 majores inter se proximi, medii (antici) eorum reliquis omnibus multo majores; tarsi unguibus tantum binis et fasciculo unguiculari instructi. The Eresoidae, including only the two genera Eresus and Palpimanus, are divided into the subfamilies Eresinae with an infra-mammillary organ and calamistrum, and Palpimaninae, in which those organs are wanting. Each, of Course, includes a single genus, the type of Eresus being E. cinnabarinus (Oliv.), and that of Palpimanus P. gibbulus (Duf.). THORELL (European Spiders, part I.) adopts the suborder Laterigradae and includes in it only the family Thomisoidae, in which he admits the following European genera (l. c. pp. 173-175):-I. Mamillae ut et ungues in apice tarsorum adsunt. A. Pedes 4 posteriores reliquis non vel parum graciliores, saepissime iis non vel parum breviores; tarsi in apice sub unguibus fasciculis 2 pilorum plus minus dilatatorum instructi Subf. I. Philodrominae. 1. Utraque oculorum series ex oculis 4 composita. a.Oculi medii antici vix vel non longius a margine clypei quam a mediis posticis remoti; maxillae plerumque rectae et parallelae. Series oculorum antica paullo recurva, postica paullo procurva. Micrommata (Lat.). Series oculorum antica paullo recurva, postica subrecta. Sparassus (Walck.). [ Series oculorum antica subprocurva vel recta, postica paullo recurva vel subrecta; oculi laterales antici mediis anticis non manifeste majores 3. Heteropoda (Lat.).] b.Oculi medii antici evidenter longius a margine clypei quam a mediis posticis remoti; maxillae in labium inclinatae. Pedum proportio 2, 1, 4, 3 (vel 2, 1, 3, 4); cephalothorax breviter ovatus, vel suborbiculatus. ?. Series oculorum antica modice, postica levius recurva; abdomen depressum, breviter et inverse ovatum vel subpentagonum 5. Artanes, g. n. [beta]. Series oculorum ambae modice et aequaliter recurvae; abdomen plerumque ovatum vel inverse ovatum. 6. Philodromus (Walck.). Pedum proportio 2, 4, 1, 3 (vel 2, 4, 3, 1); series oculorum ambae fortiter recurvae; cephalothorax et abdomen oblonga. 7.Thanatus (Koch). 2. Series oculorum antica ex oculis 6, postica ex 2 tantum oculis constat. 4. Selenops (Duf.). B. Pedes 4 posteriores reliquis graciliores et breviores multo; tarsi fasciculis unguicularibus carentSubf. II. THOMISINAE. 1.Frons cum mandibulis declivis, subporrecta; oculi medii antici a margine clypei longius distantes quam a mediis posticis. a.Series oculorum antica levius, postica fortius recurva; laterales antici evidenter majores quam medii antici. 8.Monaeses, g. n. b.Series oculorum antica fortius, postica levius recurva; laterales antici non majores quam medii antici. 9. Thomisus (Walck.). 2.Frons et mandibulae subverticales; oculi medii antici non longius a margine clypei quam a mediis posticis remoti. a.Series oculorum antica plus minus recurva. Oculi laterales postici vix vel non majores quam medii postici; aculei tibiarum graciles. ?. Series oculorum anticorum fortius, posticorum levius recurva; laterales antici non vel parum majores quam intermedii antici 10. Misumena (Lat.). [beta]. Series oculorum anticorum levius, posticorum fortius recurva; laterales antici manifeste majores quam intermedii antici. 11.Diaea, g. n. Oculi laterales postici evidenter majores quam medii postici; tibiae et metatarsi anteriores subtus aculeis robustis armati. 12. Xysticus (Koch). b.Series oculorum antica subrecta, oculi laterales inter se manifeste longius distantes quam medii antici a mediis posticis; oculi 4 medii in rectangulum latiorem quam longiorem dispositi; corpus valde depressum13. Coriarachne, g. n. II. Mamillae et ungues desunt Subf. III. ANETINAE. Oculi laterales longe remoti 14. Anetes (Menge). THORELL (European Spiders, part I.), as already stated, includes three families under his suborder Territelariae; but of these only one, his Theraphosoidae, representing the Mygalidae of most authors, is represented in Europe. He gives the following table of the European genera (l. c. p. 164):-I.Maxillae versus basin dilatatae; palpi dilatationi lateris affixi; cephalothorax anteriora versus dilatatus 1. Atypus (Latr.). II.Maxillae angustae, subcylindratae; palpi apice earum inserti. A.Area oculorum 21/2-3-plo latior quam longior; cephalothorax antice alte elevatus; pedes breves, robusti, 3tif paris roliquis breviores. 2. Cyrtauchenius, g. n. B.Oculi conferti, eminentiae communi parvae impositi; area quam occupant, circa dimidio-duplo tantum latior quam longior. 1.Mandibulae ad apicem dentibus vel lamellis corneis liberis, rastellum vel pecten formantibus, armatae. 3. Nemesia (Sav. & Aud.). 2.Mandibulae rastello carentes. a. Pedes versus apicem attenuati, unguibus ipsi apici tarsorum insertis. Mamillae superiores (posteriores) articulis quaternis. 4. Diplura (Koch). Mamillae superiores articulis trinis. 5. Trechona (Koch). [b. Pedes robusti, versus apicem vix vel parum attenuati, unguibus supra apicem tarsi insertis, retrahendis. 6. Avicularia (Lam.).] The type of Atypus is A. piceus (Sulzer); the type of Nemesia (=Cteniza) is N. cellicola (Sav. & Aud.); Diplura has D. macrura (Koch) as its type, and includes also Myg. calpeiana (Walck.) and M. luctuosa (Luc.); of Trechona the type adopted by Thorell is Myg. valentina (Duf.); Avicularia is represented by Ar. avicularia (Linn.)=vestiaria (De G.)=Avic. canceridea (Lam.). The European genera of Lycosoidae are tabulated by THORELL as follows (l. c. p. 189):-I. Series oculorum antica ex oculis 4 formata. A. Oculi medii seriei anticae a margine clypei spatio remoti quod diametrum oculorum non vel paullo tantum superat. 1.Mamillae superiores reliquis saltem dimidio longiores. 1. Aulonia (Koch). 2.Mamillae superiores reliquis vix vel non longiores. a. Series oculorum antica paullo brevior quam media; area oculorum aeque saltem longa atque lata; facies alta. Facies subquadrata, versus mandibulas non vel parum latior, lateribus rectis 2. Lycosa (Lat.). Facies versus mandibulas multo latior, lateribus fortiter convexis 3. Tarentula (Sund.). b. Series oculorum antica plerumque paullo longior, saltem non brevior quam media; area oculorum plerumque latior quam longior; facies humilis. Oculi medii seriei anticae majores, vix vel non minores quam oculi seriei posticae; cephalothorax plerumque densius appresso-pubescens 4. Trochosa (Koch). Oculi medii seriei anticae parvi, evidenter minores quam oculi seriei posticae; cephalothorax parce pubescens. 5. Pirata (Sund.). B.Oculi medii seriei anticae a margine clypei spatio remoti, quod diametro oculorum maximorum duplo saltem majus est. 1.Oculi 4 seriei anticae subaequales; pedes robustiores. 6.Dolomedes (Lat.). 2.Oculi 2 laterales seriei anticae evidenter majores quam medii ejusdem seriei; pedes graciles 7. Ocyale (Sav. & Aud.). [II. Series oculorum antica ex duobus tantum oculis constans; oculi laterales seriei modiae ab oculis 2 seriei posticae longe disjuncti. 8. Ctenus (Walck.).] The Oxyopoidae include only 2 genera, namely:-1.Peucetia, g. n. (=Pasithea, Blackw.): oculi in series 3, sectorem circuli fere formantes, ordinati. 2.Oxyopes (Lat.): oculi in series 4 ordinati. The European genera of Attoidae are tabulated by THORELL as follows (l. c. pp. 206-208):-I. Pars cephalica parte thoracica abrupte altior. 1. Salticus (Lat.). II. Pars cephalica parte thoracica non altior. A. Quadrangulus oculorum longior quam latior; oculi seriei 3tiae fere in medio cephalothorace siti.; corpus longum et angustum; pedes tenues 2. Leptorchestes, g. n. B.Quadrangulus oculorum saltem postice latior quam longior. Metatarsi et tibiae omnes aculeiscarentes. 3. Epiblemum (Hentz). Metatarsi pedum saltem anteriorum evidenter aculeati. a. Oculi seriei 3tiae non longius a margine cephalothoracis quam inter se remoti. Cephalothorax plerumque duplo fere longior quam latior. 4. Heliophanus (Koch). Cephalothorax non duplo longior quam latior. a. Cephalothorax humilis valde, dorso subplano; oculi seriei 3tiae plerumque multo longius inter se quam a margine cephalothoracis remoti. ?.Quadrangulus oculorum postice evidenter latior quam antice; oculi seriei 3tiae non multo ante medium cephalothoracis siti5. Ballus (Koch). b.Quadrangulus oculorum postice vix vel non latior quam antice; oculi seriei 3time longe ante medium cephalothoracis siti 6. Marpessa (Koch). [beta]. Cephalothorax altus, antice non angustatus, dorso evidenter arcuato 9. Euophrys (Koch). b. Oculi seriei 3tiae longius a margine cephalothoracis quam inter se remoti. Cephalothorax minus altus, dorso leviter tantum arcuato, parte cephalica parum declivi, ita ut oculi seriei 3tiae vix diametro sua altius quam oculi laterales seriei 1mae sint siti 7. Menemerus (Sim.). Cephalothorax altus, immo altissimus, parte cephalica adeo declivi ut oculi seriei 3tiae multo altius quam oculi laterales seriei 1mae siti sint. a. Metatarsi pedum posteriorum circa apicem tantum aculeis armati 8. Dendryphantes (Koch). [beta]. Metatarsi pedum posteriorum non tantum ad apicem aculeati. a. Oculi medii seriei 1mae ante frontem eminentes. Mandibulae facie circa duplo longiores. 10.Philaeus, g. n. Mandibulae facie non vel paullo tantum altiores. 11.Attus (Walck.). b. Frons adeo prominens, ut oculi medii seriei 1mae a margine frontis occultentur. Tibia pedum 4ti paris evidenter brevior quam meta tarsus cum tarso. 12. AElurops, g. n. Tibia pedum 4ti paris aeque saltem longa ac metatarsus cum tarso. 13. Yllenus (Sim.). The type of Salticus is A. formicaria (De G.), and the genus=Pyrophorus (Koch)=Pyroderes (Sim.); that of Epiblemum is E. faustum (Hentz), and the genus nearly represents. Calliethara (Koch), which is a later name; Heliophanus has Attus cupreus (Walck.) for its type; Ballus has for its type Attus heterophthalmus (Reuss), and includes A. depressus (Walck.)=S. brevipes (Hahn) and S. obscurus (Blackw.); the type of Marpessa is A. muscosus (Cl.), and the genus includes M. radiata (Grube), M. hamata (Koch), Salticus pulchellus (Hahn), Menemerus falsificus (Sim.), and Attus lucasii (Sim.); the type of Menemerus is Salt. semilimbatus (Hahn); that of Dendryphantes is A. hastatus (Cl.); Euophrys has Attus frontalis (Walck.) as its type; the type of Attus is A. terebratus (Cl.); and the type of Yllenus is Y. arenarius (Sim.). To the first three of these families reference will be made under Agelenidae; the other three form the group which has been included under the name of Drassidae in these 'Records.' Their genera are tabulated as follows by THORELL. Under the Drassoidae we have (l. c. p. 139):-I. Oculi 8. A. Maxillae convexae, non impressae. 1.Series oculorum postica, desuper visa, recurva. a. Pedes aculeati. Oculi laterales inter se longius quam medii antici a mediis posticis distantes. 1. Zora (Koch). Oculi laterales inter se non longius remoti, quam medii antici a mediis posticis. 2. Apostenus (Westr.). (?) b. Pedes non aculeati. 3. Trachelas (L. Koch). 2. Series oculorum postica procurva vel recta. a. Abdomen subtus pone plicam genitalem aliam plicam transversam praebet5. Anyphoena (Sund.). b. Abdomen plica pone plicam genitalem caret. Mandibulae ad basin inermes. a. Pedes 4u paris reliquis longiores. a. Labium ad summum dimidiam maxillarum longitudinem aequat. 4. Liocranum (L. Koch). b. Labium 1/3 brevius quam maxilla. 6. Clubiona (Lat.). [beta]. Pedes 1ml paris reliquis longiores. 7. Chiracanthium(Koch). Mandibulae ad basin aculeo armatae.. 8. Phrurolithus (Koch). B. Maxillae in medio impressae. 1. Cephalothorax linea media impressa caret. 9. Micaria (Westr.). 2. Cephalothorax linea media impressa praeditus. a.Series oculorum postica plus minus procurva, et evidenter longior quam series antica. 10. Drassus (Walck.). b. Series oculorum postica recta vel recurva. Series oculorum postica subrecta, non recurva, parum longior quam series antica. 11. Melanophora (Koch.). Oculi laterales inter se evidenter longius distantes quam medii antici a mediis posticis; series oculorum posticorum saepissime evidenter recurva 12. Gnaphosa (Lat.). II.Oculi 6 13. Thysa (Kempel.). The type of the genus Zora is Z. lycaena (Walck.)=spinimana (Sund.); the genus also includes Dolomedes spinimanus (Duf.), D. errans (Duf.), and D. hippomane (Sav. & Aud.). Apostenus has as its type A. fuscus (Westr.) and includes Agelena celans and gracilipes (Blackw.), Apostenus saxatilis (Auss.), and probably Ar. spinicrus (Duf.) and Drassus subniger (Cambr.). Liocranum is represented by Clubiona domestica (Reuss), and probably includes Drassus praelongipes (Cambr.). The type of Anyphaena is Club. accentuata (Walck.), that of Clubiona is A. holosericea (De G.), that of Chiracanthium is Club. nutrix (Walck.), and that of Phrurolithus is P. festivus (Koch). Micaria has as its type Drassus fulgens (Walck.). Aranea quadripunctata (Linn.) is the type of Drassus as restricted by Thorell, which includes Drassodes (Westr.). Melanophora, the distinctness of which from Gnaphosa is considered to be doubtful, has Drassus ater (Lat.) as its type. Gnaphosa (=Pythonissa, Koch) is typified by Drassus lucifugus (Walck.); and Thysa includes only its original species T. pythonissaeformis (Kempelen). The following is the table of genera of Dysderoidae given by Thorell (l. c. p. 153):-I. Oculi 6 perfecte explicati. A. Series oculorum antica ex 4, postica ex 2 oculis constans; oculi non ommes valde appropinquantes. 1. Maxillae longae, rectae, subparallelae; ungues tarsorum trini. 1. Segestria (Lat.). 2. Maxillae breves, latae, basi gibbosae, in labium paullo inclinatae. 2. Schaenobates (Blackw.). B. Series oculorum antica ex 2, postica ex 4 oculis constans. 1.Oculi laterales seriei posticae subrectae, longius ab oculis mediis ejusdem seriei disjuncti; oculi duo antici inter se longe remoti; ungues tarsorum trini 3. Ariadne (Sav. & Aud.). 2. Oculi saltem seriei posticae inter se valde appropinquantes. a. Oculi duo anteriores reliquis plerumque manifeste majores, plus minus longe disjuncti; series oculorum postica procurva. Mandibulae subporrectae, ungue longo et valido. Dysdera (Lat.). Mandibulae verticales, ungue brevi; ungues tarsorum trini. Harpactes (Temp.). b. Oculi omnes inter se valde appropinquantes, in tria paria dispositi, 2 utrinque, 2, reliquis majores, in medio; tarsi articulo libero unguifero aucti; ungues bini. 7. Oonops (Temp.). II. Oculi aut 6 valde imperfecti, aut O; ungues tarsorum trini. 4. Stalita (Schiodte). The type of Segestria is A. senoculata (Linn.). Schaenobates includes only S. walkeri (Blackw.). Ariadne is represented by A. insidiatrix (Forsk.). The type of Stalita is S. taenaria (Schiodte), and the species described under that name by Keyserling is distinct. The type of Dysdera is A. punctoria (Vill.); that of Harpactes is A. hombergii (Scop.); and that of Oonops is O. pulcher (Temp.). Thorell's family Filistatoidae includes only the genus Filistata. The family Hersilioidae, of which the genus Hersilia (Sav. & Aud.) is the type, includes only one European species, Hersilia oraniensis (Luc.), which Thorell makes the type of a new genus, characterized as follows (l. c. p. 115):- Hersiliola: Tarsorum articulus unguiferus ipso tarso multo brevior; mamillarum superiorum articuli bini, primus et secundus subaequales; pedes 3til paris reliquis non valde breviores. .Of his Agalenoidae, THORELL (l. c. p. 119) gives the following table of genera:- I. Nulla stigmata trachealia in medio ventris paullo pone plicam genitalem. A.Organum inframamillare et calamistrum adsunt. Subf. 1. AMAUROBIINae. 1. Maxillae in labium subtriangulum inclinatae; pedes omnes aculeis carentes. a. Oculi laterales inter se contingentes; antici eorum a mediis anticis longius distantes 1. Dictyna (Sund.). b.Oculi laterales et omnes oculi seriei anterioris inter se valde et aeque appropinquantes. 2. Argenna, g. n. 2. Maxillae subparallelae. a. Oculi laterales disjuncti. Pedes saltem 6 posteriores aculeis carentes; labium semiovale. 3. Titanaeca, g. n. Pedes omnes aculeati; labium ad basin constrictum, apice truncatum vel subemarginatum; oculi seriei 1mae subaequales, medii postici paullo longius a lateralibus posticis quam inter se distantes. 5. Amaurobius (Koch). b.Oculi laterales subcontingentes. 4. Lethia (Menge). B.Organum inframamillare et calamistrum desunt. Subf. II. AGALENINAE. 1. Mamillae superiores reliquis longiores, articulis binis, 2do acuminato, in latere inferiore, non in apice tautum, tubulis teztoriis instructo. a. Oculi 8. Mandibulae ad basin geniculato-convexae. 7. Caelotes (Blackw.). Mandibulae dorso recto vel leviter modo convexae, non ad basin geniculatae. a. Series oculorum posticorum plus minus recurva vel subrecta. [beta]. Series oculorum anticorum subrecta vel recurva, posticorum fortiter recurva. 13. Textrix (Sund.). b. Series oculorum anticorum procurva vel subrecta, posticorum subrecurva vel recta 12. Histopona, g. n. [beta]. Series oculorum posticorum procurva vel saltem recta. a. Mamillae superiores et inferiores in trapezium postice paullo latius vel in aream subrectangulum dispositae. Series oculorum anticorum fortiter procurva. aa. Series oculorum posticorum procurva; mamillarum superiorum articulus 2dus 1mo longior. 11. Agalena (Walck.). [beta][beta]. Series oculorum posticorum subrecta; mamillarum superiorum articulus 2dus 1mo saltem dimidio brevior. 9. Cryphoeca, g. n. Series oculorum anticorum subrecta vel paullo procurva; mamillarum superiorum articulus 2dus 1mo saepissime multo brevior 8. Tegenaria (Lat.). b. Mamillae longae, superiores inter se valde remotae, cum inferioribus in lineam transvesam recurvam dispositae, et iis fere dimidio longiores 10. Hahnia (Koch). b. Oculi nulli; mamillae superiores valde longae, articulo 2do aeque fere longo atque 1mo 14. Hadites (Keys.). 2. Mamillae superiores inferioribus non vel parum longiores, in ipso apice tantum tubulis textoriis praeditae. a. Mamillae superiores articulis distinctis binis; ungues tarsorum bini. 15.Agroeca (Westr.). b.Mamillae superiores articulo 2do exserto nullo; ungues tarsorum trini 6. Cyboeus (L. Koch). II. Pone plicam genitalem alia plica, stigmata trachealia duo in medio ejus sita continens, ad basin ventris adest. Subf. III. Argyronetinae. 16. ARGYRONETA (Lat.). .As already indicated (p. 144), THORELL (European Spiders, part I.) places this family under his suborder Retitelariae, which he divides into families as follows (l. c. 1869 p. 72):-I. Mamillae inferiores (anteriores) reliquis non vel parum longiores. A. Tarsi articulo unguifero libero carentes; labium liberum; mandibulae non ad basin coalitae 1. THERIDIOIDAE. B.Tarsi articulo libero unguifero aucti; labium cum sterno plerumque sine sutura coalitum; mandibulae versus basin plerumque inter se unitae 2. SCYTODOIDAE. II.Mamillae inferiores reliquis multo longiores. 3. ENYOIDAE. .THORELL's Scytodoidae are divided by him as follows (l. c. p. 101):-I.Oculi aut 8, aut 6, et tum tres in utroque latere frontis. (Palpi marium valde incrassati, clava complicata.) Subf. 1. Pholcinae. A. Oculi 8; pedes omnium longissimi 1. Pholcus (Walck.). B. Oculi 6 2. Spermophora (Hentz). II. Oculi 6, in tria paria dispositi, duo in utroque latem frontis. (Palpi marium tenues, clava parum complicata.) Subf. 2. SCYTODINAE. A. Cephalothorax postice alte convexus; mandibulae parvae, debiles; unguen tarsorum trini 3. Scytodes (Lat). n 2 B. Cephalothorax plus minus depresaus; mandibulae fortiores; ungues tarsorum bini 4. Loxosceles (Lowe). The Enyoidoe include only two genera, namely:-I.Series oculorum anticorum procurva 1. Zodarium (Walck.). II. Series oculorum anticorum subrecta. 2. Enyo (Say. & Aud.). .THORELL (European Spiders, part I.) excludes the genera Eresus and Deinopis from this family, but includes in it the genera Uloborus (=Veleda, Blackw.), Hyptiotes and Zosis (=Orithyia, Blackw.). He gives the following Table1 (l. c. p. 49) of the European genera which he admits into his Epeiroidoe:-I. Organum inframamillare nullum; metatarsi postici calamistro carent. Subf. I. EPEIRINAE. A. Maxillae breves, latitudine non vel parum longiores. 1.Series oculorum postica, desuperne visa, fortiter procurva3. Cephalothorax subplanus, parte cephalica parva, humili. 1. Argiope (Sav. & Aud.). 2.Series oculorum postica, desuperne viss, subrecta vel recurva. Cephalothorax modice convexus, parte cephalica (in feminis saltem) sat magna. a. Oculi laterales postici a mediis posticis multo longius distantes quam hi inter se. Pedes 1ml paris reliquis longiores. a. Oculi laterales antici ab anticis mediis saepissime evidenter, plerumque dimidio-duplo longius distantes quam hi inter se2. Epeira (Walck.). [beta]. Oculi laterales antici ab anticis mediis non vel paulle tantum longius distantes quam hi inter se. a. Oculi laterales saepissime sat late disjuncti. Abdomen postice in formam coni productum vel ibi tuberculatum. 3. Cyrtophora (Simon). b. Oculi laterales subcontingentes; abdomen cute molli tectum, cylindrato-ovali. 4. Singa (Koch). Pedes 4ti paris reliquis longiores. Abdomen cute duriuscula tectum 5. Cercidia, g. n. b.Oculi laterales postici non vel (in [male]) parum longius a mediis posticis distantes quam hi inter se. 6. Zilla (Koch). B. Marillae dimidio-duplo vel ultra longiores quam latiores. 1.Series oculorum anticorum fortiter recurva; oculi laterales sub-contingentes. 7. Meta (Koch). 2.Series oculorum anticorum subrecta; oculi laterales disjuncti. 8. Tetragnatha (Lat.). II. Organum inframamillare adest; metatarsi postici calamistro instructi. Subf. II. ULOBORINAE. A.Series oculorum antica margini frontis proxima, procurva, postica recurva 9. Uloborus (Lat.). B. Oculi a margine frontis longe remoti, spatium magnum occupantes; series antica procurva, postica recurva, longa. 10. Hyptiotes (Walck.). The type of Argiope is A. lobata (Pall.), and the genus also includes A. brunnichii (Scop.)=fasciata (Oliv.), and probably Ep. ambagiosa (Walck.), which is referred by Simon to Nephila. The type of Epeira is E. diademata (Cl.); the values of the genera established at the expense of Epeira are discussed by the author (pp. 53-56). The type of Cyrtophora is Ep. opuntioe (Duf.); it includes also A. conica (Pall.), for which Menge has established the genus Cyclosa, which falls, as later in date than Cyrtophora. Of Simon 's Cyrtophoroe the author rejects Ep. mexicana (Luc.), Ep. paradoxa (Luc.), probably a Cyrtarachne (Thor.)=Cyrtogaster (Keys.), and E. mitralis (Vins.), which belongs to Coerostris (Thor.), including also C. tuberculata (Vins.) and C. imperialis (Walck.). The type of Singa is A. hamata (Cl.). Cercidia is proposed instead of Cerceis (Menge), the latter name being previously employed; its type is Ep. prominens (Westr.). Zilla has for its type A. x-notata (Cl.)=calophylla (Walck.); it includes also Z. montana (Koch) and Ep. atrica (Koch). The type of Meta is Ep. menardi (Lat.); it includes also M. merianoe and M. muraria (Koch), and A. segmentatus (C1.)=reticulata (Linn.). Tetragnatha has for its type A. extensa (Linn.). The type of Uloborus (=Phillyra, Hentz=Veleda, Blackw.) is U. walckenaerii (Lat.); it includes U. latreillii and U. coatoe (Thor.). The type of Hyptiotes (Uptiotes, Walck.) is Mithras paradoxus (Koch); and the position of this genus is discussed at great length (pp. 67-71). THORELL (European Spiders, part I.) proposes to divide this order (which he calls Araneae) into 7 suborders, nearly corresponding to the families of Latreille, namely the Orbitelariae, Retitelariae (=Inaequitelae, Lat.), Tubitelariae, Territelariae, Citigradae, Laterigradae, and Saltigradae. These include in all 22 families (16 of which are represented in Europe), of which the author gives a scheme or diagram showing their mutual relations in accordance with the hypothesis of evolution-that is to say, on the principle of "propinquity of descent, " which he regards, with Darwin, as the sole cause of the similarity of organic beings. This diagram we cannot reproduce here; but its general indications may be understood from the following statement. The whole genealogical tree of the true Spiders springs from the Opiliones; it forms two branches, one of which is simple, the other very complex. The simple branch bifurcates, leading to the families Enyoidae and Scytodoidae; from the latter spring the Theridioidae, and from these again the Epeiroidae. The direct line of the second branch forms the family Filistatoidae; but the families Urocteoidae and Omanoidae (=OEcobiidae, Blackw.) are supposed to be given off from this branch before the discrimination of the Filistatoidae. From the latter springs a branch which gives off the Dysderoidae close to its origin, and leads up directly, after a longish interval, to the Theraphosoidae (=Mygalidae); and from these the Catadysoidae (founded for Catadysas, Hentz) spring on one side, pointing towards the Thomisoidae, and the Liphistioidae (founded for the genus Liphistius, Schiodte) on the other, pointing in the direction of the Phrynoidae. Another branch, originating from the Filistatoidae, bifurcates near its base into the Hersilioidae and Drassoidae; from the latter spring directly the Agalenoidae, Thomisoidae, and Lycosoidae, and from the last the Oxyopoidae, pointing towards the Saltigrade group. The Saltigradae likewise spring from the Drassoidae; their direct line terminates in the Myrmecioidae, and gives off the Attoidae; another branch is formed by a new family, Othiothopoidae (founded by the author for the reception of M'Leay's genus Othiothops); a third branch bifurcates and bears the families Dinopoidae and Eresoidae. These 22 families are placed by the author in his suborders as follows:-I. ORBITELARIAE: I. Epeiroidae; II. RETITELARIAE: 2. Theridioidae, 3. Scytodoidae, 4. Enyoidae; III. TUBITELARIAE: 5. Urocteoidae, 6. Omanoidae, 7. Hersilioidae, 8. Agalenoidae, 9. Drassoidae, 10. Dysderoidae, 11. Filistatoidae; IV. TERRITELARIAE: 12. Theraphosoidae, 13. Liphistioidae, 14. Catadysoidae; V. LATERIGRADAE: 15. Thomisoidae; VI. CITIGRADAE: 16. Lycosoidae, 17. Oxyopoidae; VII. SALTIGRADAE: 18. Myrmecioidae, 19. Othiothopoidae, 20. Dinopoidae, 21. Eresoidae, 22. Attoidae. The Spiders of this family are referred by Thorell (European Spiders, part I.) to his suborder Retitelariae, which is chiefly made up of the Theridiidae. For convenience, and in order to keep Thorell's results as much as possible together, the analysis of the whole of this suborder is given under the last-mentioned family. THORELL's suborder Citigradae (European Spiders, part I.) corresponds with this group, and is divided by him into the following two families:-I. LYCOSOIDAE: Oculi in series transversas tres vel duas dispoaiti; oculi 4 posteriores in trapezium postice latius, vel in lineam fortiter recurvam dispositi. II.OXYOPOIDAE: Oculi in series transversas 4 vel 3 dispositi; oculi 4 posteriores in trapezium postice angustius vel in seriem procurvam dispositi. The type of Micrommata is A. virescens (Cl.); the species placed under this genus by Hentz do not belong to it; Sparassus has S. argelasii (Walck.)=Ocypete tersa (Koch) as its type; Heteropoda is represented by A. venatoria (Linn.)=Olios leucosios (Walck.); Selenops has only S. homalosoma (Duf.) in Europe; the type of Philodromus is A. aureolus (Cl.); that of Thomisus is T. abbreviatus (Walck.)=T. diadema (Hahn); Misumena has A. vatius (Cl.)=A. citrea (De G.) as its type, and includes A. truncata (Pall.)=horrida (Fab.), T. lateralis (Koch), and T. villosus (Lat.); the type of Xysticus is X. kochii, sp. n.=X. viaticus (Koch nec Linn.), and the genus includes also A. viatica (Linn.)=X. audax (Koch), and Thom. claveatus (Walck.), and T. scabriculus (Westr.) forming part of Oxyptila (Sim.); Anetes, of which the author makes a distinct subfamily, includes only one species, A. caeletrum (Menge). THORELL (European Spiders, i. p. 109) divides his suborder Tubitelariae into the following six families:- I. Stigma tubi trachealis utrinque pone stigma sacci trachealis in latere ventris non adest. A. Tarsi articulo unguifero aucti; mamillae superiores reliquis multo longiores, articulis trinis aut binis: subtus tubulis textoriis praeditae; series oculorum 8 ambae recurvae; tarsorum ungues trini. II. HERSILIOIDAE. B. Tarsi articulo unguifero distincto carentes. 1. Pars cephalica impressionibus lateralibus a parte thoracica saepissime distincta; mamillae superiores inferioribus plerumque multo longiores. a. Cephalothorax brevis, subreniformis vel inverse cordatus, parte cephalica parva; matmillae superiores reliquis multo longiores, artic. binis, 2de longo, compresso; mandibulae parvae, debiles; maxillae in labium valde inclinatae; oculi 8; tarsorum ungues trini. I. UROCTEOIDAE. b.Cephalothorax oblongus, parte cephalica majore, saepissime elevata, convexa; mamillae superiores reliquis plerumque longiores et tum subtus tubulis textoriis praeditae; oculi 8, rarissime O; tarsorum ungues trini (exc. in Agraeca). III. AGALENOIDAE. 2.Pars cephalica a parte thoracica non distincta; mamillae superiores inferioribus non vel parum longiores. a.Mandibulae inter se liberae, ungue mediocri vel longo; labium non cum sterno coalitum; oculi 8, rarissime (in gen. Thysa) 6; ungues tarsorum bini IV. DRASSOIDAE. b.Mandibulae versus basin interse unitae; labium cum sterno coalitum; oculi 8; ungues tarsorum trini.VI. FILISTATOIDAE. II. Stigmata 4, bina in utroque latere ad basin ventris; oculi 6, rarissime (in Stalita) O; ungues tarsorum trini aut bini. V. DYSDEROIDAE. Thorell 's family Filistatoidae includes only the genus Filistata. Under his suborder Tubitelariae THORELL (European Spiders, part I.) includes six families, the characters of which will be found under Drassidae (p. 152). The first two families, which are newly established by Thorell, may be referred to in this place. The Urocteoidae, according to the author, "stand just upon the boundary-line between Tubitelariae and Retitelariae; " they include:-1. Urocta (Duf.)=Clotho (Walck.), the latter name previously employed: Oculi omnes rotundati, convexi; cephalothorax subreniformis; pedes robusti; mamillae superiores subtus tubulis textoriis vestiti; type Clotho durandi (Walck.); and 2. OEcobius (Luc.): Oculi intermedii postici subtrianguli, deplanati; cephalothorax inverse subcordatus; pedes graciliores; type OE. domesticus (Luc); also includes OE. annulipes (Luc.); both species possess eight eyes. THORELL's Amaurobiinoe nearly correspond with the Ciniflonidoe of Blackwall after the removal of those genera, such as Veleda, which agree with Ciniflo only in possessing an inframamillary organ and a calamistrum. The type of Dictyna is A. arundinacea (Linn.); Lethia includes only Ciniflo humilis (Blackw.)=L. varia(Menge); and the type of Amaurobius (=Ciniflo, Blackw.) is A. fenestralis (Strom)=atrox (De G.). Of the Agaleninoe, Cyboeus includes C. tetricus and angustiarum (L. Koch); the type of Coelotes is C. saxatilis (Blackw.); the type of Tegenaria is T. civilis (Walck.), and the genus includes most of the species referred to Philoica, the relations of which are discussed (p. 130); Hahnia has for its type Ag. montana (Blackw.)=H. pusilla (Koch), and includes Ag. elegans (Blackw.) and other species; Agalena (changed from Agelena on etymological grounds) has as its type A. labyrinthica (Cl.); the type of Textrix is A. denticulate (Oliv.)=T. lycosina (Sund.); Hadites (Keys.) includes only H. tegenarioides (Keys.); the type of Agroeca is Agel. brunnea (Blackw.)=linotina (Koch). The Argyronetinoe require no notice. THORELL's Theridioidae include the following European genera:-I. Abdomen petiolo longo, nodoso cum cephalothorace unitum. 2. Formicina (Canestr.). II. Petiolum brevissimum, angustum. A. Oculi non in tres turmas dispositi, neque inter se valde inaequales. 1. Oculi laterales inter se spatio minore disjuncti, quam quo distant medii antici a mediis posticis. a.Pedes aculeis sparsis armati. Oculi medii in trapezium antice angustius dispositi. ?. Oculi medii antici a margine clypei spatio non breviore distantes, quam quo a mediis posticis distant. 6. Linyphia (Lat.). ?. Oculi medii antici a margine clypei multo minus distantes, quam quo a mediis posticis distant. 5. Tapinopa (Westr.). Oculi medii in quadratum dispositi. 10. Ero (C. Koch). b. Pedes aculeis carentes (rarissime serie aculeorum subtus instructis).Mandibulae femore plus duplo crassiores, usque a basi divergentes. 1. Pachygnatha (Sund.). Mandibulae non vel apice tantum divergentes. ?. Mandibulae non vel parum crassiores quam femora anteriora; maxillae paralleliter porrectae; pedum prop. 1, 2, 4, 3. 4. Argyrodes (Sim.). ?. Mandibulae plerumque femore crassiores et apice divergentes; pedum prop. 4, 1, 2, 3. a. Maxillae subparallelae vel in labium inclinatae, ad basin non vel parum latiores 8. Walckenaera (Blackw.). b. Maxillae ad basin valde dilatatae. 7. Erigone (Sav. & Aud.). Mandibulae saepissime femore angustiores et subcylindratae; maxillae plerumque in labium fortiter inclinatae. a. Oculi laterales contingentes. a.Oculi medii trapezium antice duplo angustius formantes, maxillae latae 9. Nesticus, g. n. b.Oculi medii aream antici non vel parum angustiorem quam postici occupantes; maxillae plerumque angustae et sub-lineares. aa. Spatium inter oculos posticos medios et laterales duplo circiter majus, quam spatium, quo distant oculi medii inter se 11. Phyllonethis, g. n. bb. Spatium inter oculos posticos medios et laterales non vel paullo tantum majus, quam quo distant illi inter se. Series oculorum postica, desuperne visa, procurva vel subrecta. aa. Oculi minores 13. Theridium (Walck.). bb. Oculi majores. 14. Steatoda (Sund.). Series oculorum posticorum, evidenter recurva. aa. Pedes 1ml paris reliquis longiores; abdomen subglobosum12. Dipoena, g. n. bb. Pedes 4ti paris reliquis longiores; series oculorum posticorum fortiter recurva; abdomen ovatum. 17. Euryopis (Menge). ?. Oculi laterales disjuncti. a. Spatium inter oculos anticos medios et laterales vix majus, quam spatium quo distant laterales inter se. 3. Episinus (Walck.). b.Spatium inter oculos anticos medios et laterales multo majus, quam quo distant hi inter se. aa. Clypeus humilior; oculi medii in rectangulum dispositi. 15. Lithyphantes, g. n. [beta][beta]. Clypeus altus; oculi medii aream antice paullo angustiorem occupantes 18. Asagena (Sund.). 2. Oculi in duas series subparallelas dispositi. 16. Lathrodectus (Walck.). B. Oculi in tres turmas dispositi, duas laterales ex oculis trinis magnis constantes, tertiam ex oculis duobus minutissimis inter illas sitis. 19. Pholcomma, g. n. Of Pachygnatha the type is P. clerckti (Sund.), and of Formicina, F. mutinensis (Canest.); the type of Episinus is E. truncatus (Walck.), that of Argyrodes is A. epeirae (Sim.)=Linyphia argyrodes (Walck.), and that of Tapinopa is Linyphia longidens (Reuss). Linyphia has for its type A. triangularis (Cl.), and to it Thorell restores all the species which have lately been formed into new genera especially by Menge, with the exception of A. cellulanus (C1.), of which he makes the type of a new genus. Neriene (Blackw.) consists of species which Thorell refers to Linyphia, Walckenaera, and Erigone. The type of Erigone is E. vagans (Sav. & Aud.). Walckenaera, which has for its type W. acuminata (Blackw.)=Erigone cornuta (Reuss); includes many of the genera proposed by Menge. Ero has for its type A. tuberculata (De G.); E. saxatilis (Koch) is a Theridium. Of Theridium, as restricted by him, Thorell regards A. sisyphium (Cl.) as the type; the genus corresponds to Walckenaer 's third family. Steatoda has as ita type A. castaneus (C1.), and is very nearly synonymous with Eucharia (C. Koch). The type of Lathrodectus is A. 13-guttata (Rossi), and that of Euryopis, Micryphantes flavo-maculatus (Koch); the latter genus also includes Therid. laetum (Westr.) and T. acuminatum (Luc). Asagena has as its type Ph. phaleratum (Panz.). In Thorell 's family Scytodoidae, the genus Pholcus has Aranea pluchii (Scop.) for its type, and Spermophora (=Rachus, Walck.) has S. meridionalts (Hentz). Scytodes is represented by S. thoracica (Lat.) and Loxosceles (=Omosites, Walck.) has as its type L. citigrada (Hein. & Lowe), and includes Scytodes rufescens (Duf.). The Enyoidae include only the genera Zodarium and Enyo, the former having as its type Enyo longipes (Sav. & Aud.) and including E. graeca (Koch) and E. occitanica (Dog.), which may all form one species; and the type of the latter being E. nitida (Sav. & Aud.), with which E. germanica (Koch) is probably identical, and a second (or third) species, E. italica (Canestr.). E. amaranthina (Luc.) ought probably to form the type of a third genus.

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith