Agelenids of the World

Systematics and Taxonomy of Agelenidae, a Worldwide distributed Spider Family

Die Arachniden-Familie der Drassiden

Publication Type:Book
Year of Publication:1866
Authors:L. Koch
Series Title:Die Arachniden-Familie der Drassiden.
Number of Pages:pp. 1-304
Keywords:(Blackw.), (C. Koch), (C.Koch), (Cambr.), (Hahn), (Lat. ncc Walck.), (Latr.), (North America P)]., (Sav.), (Sund.), and, M. fastuosa, (O.Koch), = M. fidgent, (Walck.), p. 72]., (Walck.), (Walck.)]., (Walck), (Westr.), (Wid. nee Latr.), (Wid.), ) (Araneae): [Systematics, probably= P., = Clubiona erratica, (Walck.), =. 258.]., = Drassus, = Drassus ater, = Drassus fuscus, = Drassus troglodytes, = Filistata atra, = Melanophora bicolor, = P nigritus, = Phrurohthus, 176, New Granada, H bellator, p. 278, figs. 177, 178, Bogota, H., 274, pl. 11. figs. 174, 175, Mexico, Hypsinotus plumatus, p. 276, fig., Abdomen, Agelenidae, Agelenidae (Araneae)., Anyphaena, Anyphaena (Araneae)., Anyphaena bogotensis, Anyphaena bogotensis (Araneae)., Anyphaena keyterlinyi, Anyphaena keyterlinyi (Araneae)., Anyphaena pectorosa, Anyphaena pectorosa (Araneae)., Anyphaena sabina, Anyphaena sabina (Araneae)., Anyphaena sericea, Anyphaena sericea (Araneae)., Anyphaena stramiinea (Araneae)., Anyphaena sub-pallida, Anyphaena sub-pallida (Araneae)., Anyphaena tenuis, Anyphaena tenuis (Araneae)., Argyroneta, Argyroneta (Araneae)., Artamus, Australia]., Baltimore]., Biology, Cancroides (Araneae)., Cancroides [Zoology / / p. 605, Cancroides sparassus, capito, (Luc.), p. 272, pl. 1. fig. 173. New sp., Hypsinotus raptor, p., chalybeius, p. 280, figs. 179-181, New Granada, H. maculatus, p. 283,, Cheiracanthium, Cheiracanthium (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium auricomum, Cheiracanthium auricomum (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium edentulum, Cheiracanthium edentulum (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium insularc, Cheiracanthium insularc (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium lanipes, Cheiracanthium lanipes (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium meridianum (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium mildei, Cheiracanthium mildei (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium mordax, Cheiracanthium mordax (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium seidlitsis (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium tenumimum, Cheiracanthium tenumimum (Araneae)., Cheiracanthium tropicum, Cheiracanthium tropicum (Araneae)., clavator, Clubiona, Clubiona abbotii (Araneae)., Clubiona abbotii [Zoology / / p. 303, Clubiona erratica - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Clubiona excepta (Araneae)., Clubiona excepta [Zoology / / p. 300, Clubiona fallax - (Walck, Clubiona formicaria - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Clubiona listeri - (Sav.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Clubiona riparia (Araneae)., Clubiona riparia [Zoology / / p. 294, Clubiona virascens - (Sund.) (Araneae): [Systematics, = Cheiciracnithium, Clubionacorticalis, (Walck.), p. 301]., D. micans - (Blackw) (Araneae): [Systematics, and, Macaria formosa, (C., D. relucens - (Lai) (Araneae): [Systematics, Clubiona formicaria,, Drassidae, Drassidae (Araneae)., Drassus, Drassus (Araneae)., Drassus [Zoology / / ] [ / / The following synonymic indications are, Drassus ater, Drassus ater - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus ater - (Latr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus braceatus, Drassus braceatus (Araneae)., Drassus capito - (Luc.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus clavator - (Cambr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus cognatus, Drassus cognatus - (Westr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus dalmatensis, Drassus dalmatensis (Araneae)., Drassus fuscus, Drassus fuscus - (Lat. ncc Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus gnaphosus - ( Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus his-panus, Drassus his-panus (Araneae)., Drassus hrjubris - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus Ion-catus, Drassus Ion-catus (Araneae)., Drassus lapidicola - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus lividus, Drassus lividus - (Walck.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus lucifugus, Drassus lucifugus (Araneae)., Drassus luteseens - (C. Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus mandibularis (Araneae)., Drassus minusculus, Drassus minusculus (Araneae)., Drassus montanus, Drassus montanus - (Hahn) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus nudiui, Drassus nudiui (Araneae)., Drassus orientalis, Drassus orientalis (Araneae)., Drassus propinquus - (Blackw.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus rubreus - (Walck) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus scutulatus, Drassus scutulatus (Araneae)., Drassus sericeus, Drassus sericeus (Araneae)., Drassus similis, Drassus similis (Araneae)., Drassus striatus, Drassus striatus (Araneae)., Drassus tennis, Drassus tennis (Araneae)., Drassus troglodytes - (C.Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Drassus umbratilis, Drassus umbratilis (Araneae)., Drassus viator, Drassus viator (Araneae)., Dysderidae, Dysderidae (Araneae)., festivus, figs. 185, 186, Bogota., Liocranum, Agraeca, Lycodrassus, Trachelas]., Filistata atra - (Wid. nee Latr.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Filistata incerta, Filistata incerta - (Wid.) (Araneae): [Systematics]., Filistata maculata - (Wider) (Araneae): [Systematics, and, Drassus, from which, given by, gnaphosus, ( Walck.), = P. nocturna, (Linn.), p. 37]., Hypsinotus (Araneae): [Gen nov, g. n., p. 270, Known sp., Drassus, Hypsinotus plumatus, Hypsinotus plumatus (Araneae)., Hypsinotus raptor, Hypsinotus raptor (Araneae)., indications, is again cited, is distinct, is distinct from, Koch), = Macaria ptdicaria, (Sund.), p. 62]., laevipes, Latona (Araneae): [Gen nov]., Latona eylindrata (Araneae): [Sp nov, Sp., sp. n., p. 3, Australia.]., lentiginosa, (Koch), p. 41]., Liocranum, Liocranum (Araneae)., listeri, luteseens, mandibularis, Melanophora (Araneae)., Melanophora [Zoology / / ] [ / / furnishes the following synonymic, Melanophora decta, Melanophora subterranea, meridianum, Micaria (Araneae)., Micaria [Zoology / / ] [ / / Drassus hrjubris, Micaria nittra, more, New taxa, Nomenclature, ntitrix, (C. Koch), p. 248, C. dumctorum, (Hehn), = C. carnifex, (Fab.),, origin, H. granadensis, p. 287, fig. 184, New Granada, H. macer, p. 289,, p. 116, p. 120, p. 151, p. 170, p. 182]., p. 229]., p. 60]., p. 79, p. 86, P. muscorum, P. muscorum (Araneae)., Philodromi, Philodromus, Philodromus (Araneae)., Philodromus aureolus, Philodromus aureolus (Araneae)., Philoica notata - (C. Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics, is not=, Phrurohthus (Araneae)., Phrurohthus [Zoology / / Drassus propinquus, Phrurolithus romanus (Araneae)., Phrurolithus romanus [Zoology / / p. 225, pl. 12. fig. 182, Bogota, H. rubripes, p. 285, fig. 183, of unknown, probably=, probably= Drassus rubreus, Pythonissafusca - (C. Koch) (Araneae): [Systematics, is again raised to, Rome]., seidlitsis, Sparassus, Sparassus - Walck. (Araneae): [Systematics]., Sparassus virescens, Sparassus virescens (Araneae)., specific rank by, p. 36, and said to be identical with]., Storena graeffei (Araneae)., Storena graeffei [Zoology / / p. 192, stramiinea, Systematics, Thanatus, Thanatus (Araneae)., Thanatus trilineatus, Thanatus trilineatus (Araneae)., Thanatus trilineatus]., Thomisus, Thomisus - Walck. (Araneae): [Systematics]., Thomisus calycinus, Thomisus calycinus (Araneae)., Trachelas, Trachelas (Araneae)., Walck, with no expression of doubt as= Drassus lapidicola, Xysticus, Xysticus (Araneae)., Xysticus viaticus, Xysticus viaticus (Araneae)., Xysticus viaticus [Zoology / / ].

Of this work, which is to be completed in eight parts, the Recorder has received six. It is a monograph of the Spiders belonging to the family Drassidae, with analytical tables of the genera and species. The plates contain figures only of the epigynes and male palpi of the different species. .to the six genera adopted by Koch, and characterizes two groups in the family, namely Cancroides (= Thomisus, Walck.) and Philodromi (= Philodromus and Sparassus, Walck.). He tabulates the genera as follows (l. c. p. 605):- I. Two anterior pairs of legs much longer and stronger than the posterior; upper edge of head transverse, straight, and sharp (CancroidEs, Prach). A. All the eyes of nearly equal size; third pair of legs reaching but little beyond the knees of the second pair .... I. Thomisus. B. Lateral. eyes of first row much larger than the intermediate ones; third pair of legs reaching nearly to apex of tibiae of second pair. 2. Xysticus. II. Legs differing but little in length, nearly of equal strength; upper edge of head obtuse (Philodromi, Prach). A. Abdomen depressed, purse-shaped, or oval. 1. Posterior row of eyes nearly straight; abdomen purse-shaped. 3. Artamus. 2. Posterior row of eyes convex anteriorly; abdomen more or less oval. 4. Philodromus. B. Abdomen elongate-cylindricol or ovate, and convex. Post row of eyes strongly convex anteriorly .. 5. Thanatus. Post, row of eyes strongly concave in front.... 6. Sparassus The number of species described is 21, namely 4 Thomisus, 9 Xysticus, 3 Artamus 2 Philodromus, 1 Thanatus, and 2 sparassus. Details are figured of the following species:-Xysticus viaticus, pl. 6. figs. 1, 2, & 10-12; Sparassus virescens, figs. 3-5, & 22-25; Philodromus aureolus, figs. 6 & 16-18; Thomisus calycinus, figs. 7-9; Artamus laevipes, figs. 13-15; and Thanatus trilineatus, figs. 19-21. .Thus restricted, Koch's Drassidae include the following genera, tabulated l. c. p. 2 I Maxillae with an excavation or transvese impression. A. Maxillae excavated throughout their length. 1. Latona, g. n. B. Maxillae with a transverse impression. 1. A toothed plate on the hinder margin of the mandibular groove. 2. Pythonissa (C. Koch). 2. No toothed-plate on the mandibles. a. Median fiasure wanting 3. Micaria (Westr.).=Macaria (C.Koch). b. Median fissure present Posterior row of eyes bent over and broader than the anterior. 4. Drassus (Walck.). Posterior row of eyes straight and not broader than the anterior ..... 5. Melanophora(C.Koch), II. Maxillae) convex, without an impression. A. Eyes in 3 rows (2,4,2) 6. Storrma (Walck). B. Eyee in 2 rows. 1. Posterior row of eyes curved, with the concavity forward, a. A transverse fold on the lower surface of the abdomen. 7. AnyphAEna (Sund.). b. No transverse fold beneath the abdomen. Mandibles with a spine in front at the base. 8. Phrurolithus (C. Koch). Mandibles without a spine. a. First pair of legs longest.. 9. Cheiracnnyhium(O.Koch). ?. Fourth pair of legs longest. a, Patellae of 4 hinder legs spineless, or with only 1 spine behind. Cephalothorox-wrinkled. 10. Hypsinotus, g. n. Cephalothorax smooth. aa. Labium about one-third shorter than maxillae. Clubiona (Walck.). ??. Labium not more than half as long as maxillae. Liocranum. b. Patellae of 4 hinder legs spinous in front, or before and behind. A spine in front on the patellae. 13. AgrOECA. A spine before and behind on the patellae. 14 Lycodrassus. 2. Posterior row of eyes curved, with the convexity forward. a. Legs without spines 15. Trachelas. b. Legs with spines 16. Zora (C. Koch). .The remaining genera, 4 of which appear to be new (Liocranum, Agraeca, Lycodrassus, andTrachelas), are not treated of in the six parts of the work which havo yet reached the Recorder. KOCH (Die Arachn.-Fam. der Drassiden) characterizes this family as follows:-Tarsi without accessory claws; eyes 8, in 2 or 3 rows (in the latter case 2, 4, 2); second pair of legs not longer than the rest. These characters exclude the Agelenidae and Dysderidae, those members of Blackwall's family Ciniflonidae which have been placed by authors with the Drassidae, and the genera Sparassus and Argyroneta, the latter referred to this family both by Simon and Blackwall, all of which the author considers to have nothing to do with the present family. Pythonissa. The following new species are described by L. Koch:-P. nwscorum, l. e. p. 14, pl. 1. figs. 9, 10, Europe; P. montana, p. 18, fig. 11, South Germany; P. rvfula, p. 20, figs. 12-14, Sarepta; P. badia, p. 22, fig. 15, Tyrol; P. leporina, p. 27, pl. 2. fig. 19, Transylvania; P. helvetica, p. 29, fig. 20, Engadine; P. sericata, p. 31, figs. 21, 22, Baltimore; P. lapponum, p. 33, figs. 23-25, Lapland; P. molendinaria, p. 47, figs. 34, 35, Caucasus and Dalmatio. Micaria. L. Koch describes the following new species of this genus:-M. cincta, l. c p. 53, pl. 3. figa. 36-38, Orsova; M. nivosa, p. 58, figs. 42, 43, Munich; M. radiata, p. 65, fig. 47, origin unknown; M. romana, p. 67, fig. 48, Rome. Drassus. L. Koch describes the following new species of this genus:-D. nudiui, l c. p. 82, pl. 4. fig. 56, Nuremberg, in houses; D. viator, p. 84, fig. 57, Europe and North Africa; D. dalmatensis, p. 89, fig. 59, Dalmatis; D. his-panus, p. 90, fig. 60, Spain; D. scutulatus, p. 93, fig. 61 (= sericeus, Wider, Walck, and C. Koch, nce Sund. + lucifugus, C. Koch, +fuscus, Westr.), Europe; D. braceatus, p. 97, fig. 63, Nuremberg; D. tennis, p. 101, figs. 65, 66, Dalmatia; D. similis, p. 103, fig. 67, Sicily; D. orientalis, p. 106, pl. 5. fig. 68, Sarepta; D. minusculus, p. 110, fig. 70, South Europe; D. umbratilis, p. 113, fig. 71, Nuremberg; D. striatus, p. 114, fig. 72, Dalmatia; D. Ion-catus, p. 131, figs. 82-84, Sarepta; D. mandibularis, p. 134, pl. 6. fig. 85, Sarepta. Melanophora. Of this genus the following new species are described by L. Koch:-M. eaucasis, l e, p. 144, pl. 6. fig. 87, Caucasus; M. Iongipes, p. 147, figa. 88, 89, Germany; M. conspicua, p. 149, figs. 90-92, Dalmatia and Orsova; M. longinqua, p. 153, fig. 96, Sahara; M. praefiea, p. 155, figs. 97-99, Oraova and Dalmatia; M. lutetiana, p. 157, fig. 100, Paris; M. barbata, p. 161, fgs. 101-103, South Europe and Sahara; M. femella, p. 176, fig. 114, Dalmatia s 2 and Italy; M. serotina, p. 185, pl. 8. figs. 123-125, Germany; M, fuscipes, p. 189, figs. 127-129, Sicily; M. spadix, p. 187, fig. 128, Sahara. Anyphaena. The following new speciea are described by L. Koch:-A. pectorosa, l c. p. 198, pl. 8. figs. 131, 132, Baltimore; A. keyterlinyi, p. 203, figs. 136-138, Bogota; A. stramiinea, p. 207, Bogota; A. bogotensis, p. 209, fig. 139, Bogota, A. tenuis, p. 211, pl. 9. fig. 140, St. Domingo; A. sub-pallida, p. 213, Bogota; A, sabina, p. 214, fig. 141, Sabina Mountains; A, sericea, p. 216, fig. 142, Bogota. Cheiracanthium. Of this genus L. Koch describes as new species:-C. auricomum, l. c. p. 233, pl. 9. figs. 151, 152, Bogota; C. meridianum, p. 235, fig. 153, Bogota; C. tenumimum, p. 237, fig. 154, Dalmatia, Greece, and Algeria; C. tropicum, p. 239, fig. 155, Bogota; C. lanipes, p. 241, Bogota; C. edentulum, p. 247, fig. 157, Mauritius; C. mildei, p. 253, pl. 10. figs. 161-163, Tyrol, Dalmatia, and Caucasus; C. mordax, p. 262, pl. 11. figs. 167, 168, Upolu, Navigator's Islands; C. seidlitsis, p. 264, figs. 169-171, Italy; C. insularc, p. 268, fig. 172, Upolu.

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